George L. Trigg, Crucial Experiments in Modern Physics (Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1971). This slender (141-page)
book contains clear, short
descriptions of the evidence that shaped some of the central ideas in
"modern" physics up to about 1930.
If you can't find this one in a library, look for
George L. Trigg, Landmark Experiments in Twentieth-Century Physics
(Dover Publications, New York, 1995).